Ladies & Gentlemen,
Below is a new article from a brand new project of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine entitled “Cartographic Propaganda” by Ukrainian historian Kyrylo Halushko
Mid-19th Century: Emergence of European Nations on the Maps
Following the French Revolution, slogans of national freedom spread all over Europe. In half a century in 1848, they led to another wave of European revolutions – the Spring of Nations. However, even before “the Spring” started, it was somewhat difficult to identify where each nation striving for freedom was located. Everything was simpler when state borders followed ethnic lines. The French fought for their freedoms in a separate France, the Germans – in Germany… However, unlike France, no Germany as a state existed at the time. The Germans tried to unite within their ethnic lands: Prussia, Bavaria, Hannover, Wurttemberg. The Italians lived in Piedmont, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Papal State (not yet Vatican) and in Austria.
The Ukrainians faced a similar problem. They lived in the Russian and the Austrian Empires. In the former they were officially called “malorosy” or “little Russians”, in the latter they were called “ruthenen”. The modern ethnic map of Europe was drawn in the 1840’s by linguists. Fig. 1 (Britain, 1843) illustrates notions that existed before the emergence of linguistic maps. From London, remote from east of Europe, the whole east of the continent looked blurred, as it may seem today. No ethnic border was true to facts. There were mysterious “Magyar-Sclavs”, the Tatars were indicated on the lands they never occupied, the Poles occupied half of Ukraine, the Dnipro was an ethnic border.
The Fig. 2 displays linguistic discoveries that would form the base of scientific until nowadays. That’s “The Slav Lands”, a map by Pavol Šafárik, founder of Slavic studies (Prague, 1842). It became the basis of ethnic maps of Central Europe until the 20th century. We outlined the lands of maloros-Ukrainians. It is worth noting that at that time there was a separate ethnos of “Novgorodians” occupied by Muscovites in the 15th and 16th centuries. The map illustrates similarities and differences between the lands occupied by Ukrainians in 1842 and the modern map of Ukraine of the 21st century. Yellow color illustrates German colonization of south east of Ukraine, while blue color indicates Greek colonization. Crimea and Sea of Azov shores are settled by the Tatars. Maloroses live in Northern Caucasus – in the territory of Black Sea Cossack Host, new lands conquered by Russia and colonized by Ukrainian settlers.